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2018 Annual Meeting Abstracts

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NOTE:  Submission of papers is now closed.  If you have an idea for an additional topic, please consider bringing it with you and presenting during "free for all" time, if available.

Named Lectures

Ruedemann Lecture -- Martin Wand, MD
     "My Serendipitous Journey with the Prostaglandins"

Jerry & Donna Knauer AESC Foundation Lecture -- George Williams, MD

General Session Program

OMIC Risk Management Presentation -- "Top 10 Settlements of 2017"
          Steven V.L. Brown, MD and Jeremiah Brown, MD

The following abstracts have been submitted for the summer 2018 AESC meeting.  Abstracts will be posted here as they are submitted.

Albanis, Chris-- "Is it a full moon?  A day in the life of a comprehensive ophthalmologist...
  • Summary: A review of "interesting" patients who presented in at a comprehensive ophthalmologist's office.  Discussion will include the ocular condition, psychological profile for each patient and an analysis of whether or not age is a factor in the patient's pathology.  Finally we will discuss whether or not the presence of a full moon alters human behavior.
  • Educational objectives:  To review how an understanding of psycho-social profiles can help enhance ophthalmic care.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Baratz, Keith-- "What you and your patients need to know about the new shingles vaccine
  • Summary: This talk will discuss Shingrix, the new vaccine that was FDA approved in the fall of 2017, with comparison to the prior vaccine, Zostavax. Shingrix is composed of a zoster glycoprotein subunit with an pro-inflammatory adjuvant. The vaccine is more effective than Zostavax and is projected to have a longer duration of protection. The CDC made formal recommendations for the vaccine in early 2018. In contrast to Zostavax, which was recommended for all immunocompetent individuals 60 yrs and older, the CDC recommended Shingrix vaccination beginning at age 50 yrs. and includes those who have already received Zostavax. The changing epidemiology of zoster and the rationale for these CDC recommendations will be addressed.
  • Educational objectives:  This talk will address the efficacy and CDC recommendations for Shingrix, a new vaccine for shingles that was FDA approved in 2017.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Bell, Nicholas -- "What's in a Name?
  • Summary: Discussion of a newly characterized anatomical landmark in the anterior chamber angle.
  • Educational objectives:  Better understanding of angle anatomy.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Berry, Jesse -- "Aqueous Humor Genomics Predicts Eye Salvage in Retinoblastoma" 
  • Summary: Retinoblastoma is a pediatric eye cancer. Unlike most cancers, retinoblastoma cannot be biopsied due to risk of cancer spread outside the eye. Therefore, unless the eye is removed for treatment of the cancer, the genetic changes in the tumor cannot be identified. Retinoblastoma is initiated by a mutation in the RB1 tumor suppressor gene, however secondary chromosomal changes drive tumor progression. However, because biopsy is contraindicated these chromosomal changes could not previously be correlated with clinical outcomes such as therapeutic tumor response. This has now changed because we recently demonstrated that the aqueous humor, the clear fluid in the front of the eye, can be used as a liquid biopsy for retinoblastoma. We showed that tumor DNA is present in the aqueous and which can be analyzed without removing the eye. The DNA in the aqueous had specific patterns of chromosomal changes, specifically gain of 6p, that were associated with aggressive tumor activity and the need to remove the eye to prevent tumor spread. This research demonstrates, for the first-time, the importance of evaluating tumor DNA and chromosomal changes in the aqueous humor as it predicts therapeutic tumor response and the ability to save the eye with current treatment regimens. 
  • Educational objectives: This lecture will improve understanding of the aqueous humor as a liquid biopsy for retinoblastoma
  • Schedule Restrictions: Not Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday

Brasington, Chad-- "Help! - The legislature just filed an optometric surgery bill and our lobbyist ran for the hills.
  • Summary: Patient safety was threatened in North Carolina by a bold attempt to legislate surgery by non-physicians.  Derailing this dangerous legislation in NC required extensive education, advocacy, communication, and tireless efforts.  Collaboration with the AAO and numerous medical societies was essential to success.
  • Educational objectives: This presentation will better prepare state leaders to defend patient safety when facing legislative challenges.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Brown, Steven -- "Open-Angle Glaucoma and Blindness: Quality of Life Assessment of Patients Followed for Over 20 Years" 
  • Summary: To determine whether patients notice glaucoma related visual field (VF) changes and potential impact on their quality of life (QOL). Methods: From a companion study (also submitted for consideration) 100 patients were followed for >20 years (yrs) & treated >10 yrs were sent a 33 question QOL survey. The higher the QOL score (1-5, 5 being greatest), the greater affect patient's reported impact on QOL. Patients¿ 3 most reliable VFs were averaged, categorized by Mills Glaucoma Staging System (MGSS) & compared to the QOL mean score. Results: 74 patients returned questionnaires. Patients with a worst eye of MGSS 2 had a mean QOL score of 2.4(SD.7), MGSS 3 was 3.2(.8), MGSS 4 was 2.1(1) & MGSS 5 was 2.9(.8). Patients with a best eye of MGSS 2 had a mean of 2.9(.7)& those with MGSS 3 had a mean of 3.5(1). Conclusion: Patients only noticed impact to their QOL at MGSS 3 irrespective of better or worse eye. Patients with unilateral advanced VF loss were only marginally impacted in their QOL. 
  • Educational objectives: Unfortunately, patients only notice glaucoma vision loss when their disease has progressed to moderate/advanced stages. However, good quality of life can be maintained if only one eye in impacted by glaucoma but does cause concern for patient's compliance and management of the healthy eye to maintain stable visual fields.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Not Monday or Tuesday

Chiang, Michael F. -- "Clinical Ophthalmology Documentation Using EHRs: How much text is new, and who is writing it?" 
  • Summary: To deal with time demands of clinical documentation using electronic health records (EHRs), ophthalmologists frequently adopt strategies such as copy-paste and templates, import technology, and relying on authorship by clinical support staff (e.g. technicians, photographers). This talk describes a retrospective study that quantitatively assesses the prevalence of imported and support staff-authored content in ophthalmology office visit progress notes at OHSU Casey Eye Institute using automated coding methods that we have developed. 
  • Educational objectives:  This talk identifies gaps in care regarding clinical ophthalmology documentation, and describes ways in which it can be improved.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Best on Wednesday if at all possible - may need to leave meeting early this year.

Chiu, Cynthia S. -- "My Personal Learning Curve with ORA" 
  • Summary: Intraoperative aberrometry using the Optiwave Refractive Analysis (ORA) is a helpful technology in achieving refractive outcomes, especially for patients selecting premium IOL's or monovision, patients with history of corneal refractive surgery, or patients with high hyperopia/myopia. However, recommendations generated by the ORA are subject to many variables, some innate to the eye and others to surgical technique, and the technology can be difficult to master, as well as produce erroneous results. This talk will focus on my 4 years of experience with the ORA and methodology to achieve best outcomes. 
  • Educational objectives:  To help early users of ORA technology achieve consistent success in refractive outcomes after cataract surgery.
  • Schedule Restrictions: I can ONLY give my talk on Wednesday 

DelMonte, Derek -- "Pain Control after Ocular Surgery: Topical, Oral or Both?”
  • Summary:  To discuss ways to control corneal pain after refractive surgery or ocular trauma
  • Educational objectives: Review the many options we have available for controlling corneal pain, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each. I will discuss my experience with oral pain control with non-opioid medications. 
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Epley, David-- "Yanny or Laurel? The Science Behind the Audio Controversy of 2018"

  • Summary:  This talk will review the Yanny/Laurel controversey and discuss the scientific underpinnings behind audio perception, incorporating analogies with the visual world as well.
  • Educational objectives: Our ability to hear an interpret speech is a critical component of patient interaction and a better understanding of audiological phenomena will enhance the physician's ability to interact with patients, particularly the young and the old.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime 

Fante, Robert G.-- "Efficacy and Positive Utility of a Combined Approach to Upper Eyelid Lifting Surgery"

  • Summary:  Consistently effective and efficient repair of droopy upper eyelids can be a challenging surgical and ethical problem.  Using simplified posterior ptosis repair and blepharoplasty, 501 eyelids (279 patients) were treated over five years, without regard to insurance reimbursement that would have limited surgery to one or the other.  Eyelid height, patient satisfaction, complications, re-operation rate, and cosmetic outcome were measured, and data will be presented demonstrating the positive utility of this combined approach, both for the patient and the surgeon.
  • Educational objectives: The gaps include incomplete knowledge of the outcomes from combined simplified posterior ptosis repair and upper blepharoplasty, as well as a need to review the value principles that underlie insurance reimbursement and the doctor-patient relationship.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Not Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday 

Francis, Brian-- "Eye Surgery From the Inside Out"

  • Summary:  Endoscopic eye surgery is a new technique that allows the surgeon unparalleled views of the interior of the eye without distorting the anatomy. This presentation will introduce the concept and practice of endoscopic eye surgery. Techniques for anterior, intermediate, and posterior segment will be discussed. The format will be case based with the opportunity for interaction and discussion.
  • Educational objectives: This lecture introduces the new field of endoscopic eye surgery and its utility in a wide variety of disease states.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Gicheru, Sidney -- "SMILE: My 1 year experience" 

  • Summary: SMILE (Small Incision Lenticule Extraction):  My 1 year experience.  This is a discussion about SMILE Laser Vision Correction and its introduction into my practice over the last year.  I will discuss the procedure, perils and pearls.
  • Educational objectives:  SMILE is a new procedure that was FDA approved in 2017.  The purpose of the talk is to educate the audience about this new Laser Vision Correction technique.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Not 7/31 and 8/1

Gold, Robert -- "AESC History - 50 years Later" 

  • Summary: Put current presentations in perspective by reporting on AESC annual meeting topics from 50 years ago.
  • Educational objectives:  Understand the advances in ophthlamology.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Giangiacomo, Annette L. -- "Sustained release glaucoma treatments" 
  • Summary: Review treatments under current study.
  • Educational objectives:  update on up and coming glaucoma treatments.
  • Schedule Restrictions: ONLY Saturday

Hagedorn, Curtis L. -- "Management of Intra-ocular Foreign Bodies
  • Summary: Intra-ocular foreign bodies (IOFBs) suck.  Many such injuries end in very poor long term vision or even loss of the eye.  According to the United States Eye Injury Registry (USEIR), the surveillance arm of the American Society of Ocular Trauma (ASOT), the incidence among eyes with open-globe injury is 16% in the United States, but is up to 40% world wide. The most common cause is hammering; the incidence over time shows a decrease at the workplace and an increase in the home.  93% are male and average age is 30.  This talk will discuss diagnosis and proper management of IOFBs through words and video presentation of multiple IOFB cases handled by the presenter.
  • Educational objectives:   IOFBs are unique and extremely challenging cases, and there really is no consensus on exactly how to handle these cases.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Not Saturday

Horn, Erich P. -- "Financing the dream: Historical trends in the cost of an American medical education" 
  • Summary: To practice ophthalmology in the US, physicians must graduate from an accredited medical school and then finish post-graduate residency education. The cost of this medical education is generally borne by the physician-in-training. 2017 figures supplied by the Association of American Medical Colleges suggest the mediation cost of four years of medical school is $207,866 at a public institution and $278,455 at a private one. Tuition and school fees alone at Johns Hopkins Medical School were $57,230, which exclude the considerable costs of housing, food and transportation. Examining how these medical school costs have changed in the past century is the focus of this research. The economic and social context of these educational costs will be considered as well. Currently, the median household income is $59,039 (an all-time high, adjusted for inflation) which provides a useful comparison. I hypothesize that the costs of medical education have outpaced general inflation and that ophthalmologists have better return on training investment than some other physicians because of higher income potential following the completion of their training.
  • Educational objectives:   Leaders in ophthalmic education and practice are not fully aware of the cost of medical education paid by students; without that knowledge, they will not act lower educational expense.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Kishor, Krishna S. -- "Do we trust visual fields?"
  • Summary: Using a case study, when unconfirmed visual field changes are present, it is important to determine if the visual field changes are real by repeating the visual fields.  The Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study showed repeating visual fields is important when visual field changes are present.
  • Educational objectives:  After this talk, the audience will know that unconfirmed changes in visual fields need to be repeated.  Using OCT will help with the diagnosis.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Thursday-Onwards

Klapper, Stephen R.-- "Orbital Lymphoma: A Clinical Update"
  • Summary: Lymphoma of the orbit and ocular adnexa comprise only 1% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas.  However, about one-half of malignant tumors arising in the orbit and ocular adnexa are lymphomas and the incidence appears to be increasing.  The majority are extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).  Follicular, large B-cell, and mantle cell lymphomas are less frequently occurring primary orbital tumors.  Secondary orbital involvement occurs in about 2% of systemic lymphomas.  Clinical cases, diagnostic challenges and treatment options for each of these types of malignant lymphoproliferative disorders will be reviewed.
  • Educational objectives:  To better appreciate the varied clinical presentations, diagnostic work-up, current classification, and management of lymphomas involving the orbit and ocular adnexa.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Kurup, Shree -- "Not the Usual Suspects"
  • Summary: Retinal disorders can be associated with deadly or devastating conditions. It is not difficult to overlook some of these entities. These cases described are all seen as fourth or fifth opinions and reflect the complexity of arriving at a diagnosis. Not only entertaining, these cases will help avoid medico legal issues also.
  • Educational objectives:  Recognition of entities that mimic benign conditons
  • Schedule Restrictions: Not Saturday, August 4

Kurup, Shree -- "Managing Suprachoroidal Hemorrhages with Seton Devices"
  • Summary: A new technique for surgically managing suprachoroidal hemorrhages in a setting of seton devices
  • Educational objectives:  This is a brand new surgical technique
  • Schedule Restrictions: Not Saturday, August 4 

LaRosa, Frank -- "Gonioscopically Assisted Transluminal Trabeculotomy with the Trab360 Medium Term Results"

  • Summary:  Presentation of medium term results of pressure and medication usage in patients undergoing goniotomy using the Trab360
  • Educational objectives:  Effectiveness of ab interno goniotomy using the Trab360
  • Schedule Restrictions:  Not Wednesday, August 1

Lelli, Gary -- "What does "Philly Special" have in common with ophthalmology?" 
  • Summary: We will review the Philadelphia Eagles historic first Super Bowl victory and find out what this win has in common with oculoplastic surgery.
  • Educational objectives:  We will discuss how collaborative care benefits patients and physicians.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime 

Lobo, Ann-Marie-- "Managing the unexpected: adverse effects of medications for uveitis" 

  • Summary: Management of medication adverse effects is an important part of the care of patients with uveitis. Cases featuring adverse effects of different medications used in the treatment of uveitis will be presented and discussed. 
  • Educational objectives:  To review management of adverse effects of medications used in the treatment of uveitis patients
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Mahajan, Vinit -- "Pediatric Neovascular Inflammatory Vitreoretinopathy (NIV) Due to CAPN5 Mutations" 

  • Summary: Mutations that activate the protease calpain-5 (CAPN5) typically cause a non-syndromic adult-onset autoinflammatory eye disease. We describe two pediatric patients with early-onset inflammatory vitreoretinopathy associated with novel, de novo CAPN5 missense mutations (p.Gly267Ser and p.Arg289Trp) characterized by uveitis, retinal degeneration, neovascularization, and intraocular fibrosis. The mutations were modeled in three-dimensional protein structure and cause greater hyperactivation of the calpain protease, indicating a proteotype-phenotype correlation that links mutation severity to proteolytic activity. One of the children had severe inflammatory vitreoretinopathy accompanied by hearing loss, optic neuritis, and developmental delay, suggesting that gain-of-function CAPN5 mutations can cause earlier onset syndromic disease with auditory and neurological abnormalities.
  • Educational objectives:  There is a knowledge gap of genes that cause pediatric uveitis and retinal degeneration
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Mahajan, Vinit -- "Three-year update for the phase 3 voretigene neparvovec study in biallelic RPE65 mutation–associated inherited retinal disease

  • Summary:  The FDA recently approved gene augmentation therapy with voretigene neparvovec (VN) for inherited retinal disease caused by biallelic mutations of the RPE65 gene. This presentation provides updated 3-year functional vision and visual function efficacy results and safety data from the phase 3 VN trial.
  • Educational objectives:  To familiarize ophthalmologists with key efficacy and safety data from the phase 3 trial of voretigene neparvovec gene augmentation therapy for RPE65 mutation–associated retinal dystrophy.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Maltzman, Jeff-- "Political Update- The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly" 

  • Summary: We will review the current state of politics and advocacy as they relate to the AAO and our objectives at the Federal and State levels. Recent victories and losses will be reviewed, as will our plan for success over the coming year. It's an election year, and it's about to get messy!
  • Educational objectives:  All practicing ophthalmologists must understand how the political landscape affects our ability to practice and provide the highest level of care to our patients.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime 

Miller, Darby -- "Advantages of Femtosecond Laser Assisted Cataract Surgery" 

  • Summary: Cataract surgery is the most common surgery performed worldwide. Femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) was introduced in 2001. In the current literature, there is a debate regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adopting this technology. This talk will focus on reviewing the recent literature that highlights the advantages of FLACS.
  • Educational objectives:  This lecture will improve the understanding of the advantages of FLACS.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime
  • This is my first meeting 

Orge, Faruk H. -- "Update on 3D-UBM" 
  • Summary: We have been developing and utilizing 3D-UBM technology to better visualize the anterior segment structure. This presentation will provide update on the capabilities utilizing the technology.
  • Educational objectives:  Understanding UBM as one of the anterior segment imaging modalities.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Orge, Faruk H. -- "Simulators in Pediatric Ophthalmology Education
  • Summary: We have been developing strabismus and refraction simulators under the AAO ONE network and the KTEF Pediatric ophthalmology education center. This will be a brief introduction of the capabilities of these simulators.
  • Educational objectives:  Learning the role of ophthalmic online simulators in pediatric ophthalmology educational platform.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Orge, Faruk H. -- "KTEF Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center
  • Summary: With the $1 million donation from the KTEF, AAO and AAPOS has partnered to form the Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center and went live in 11.2015. Since then, we have formed the biggest online pediatric ophthalmology educational platform with open access worldwide. The site has been utilized by visitors from 191 countries, by 264,000 users with more than 570,000 hits.
  • Educational objectives:  To learn the background and detail of the AAO KTEF Pediatric ophthalmology Education Center.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Parke, III,  D. Wilkin -- "Vitrectomy for other conditions in the setting of neovascular AMD" 
  • Summary: This is a retrospective single-practice series of vitrectomy for various indications including endophthalmitis, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, and macular hole in the setting of active neovascular AMD. Vitrectomy for macular hole in the setting of other maculopathies is also reviewed.
  • Educational objectives: To elucidate any additional considerations when doing vitrectomy in the setting of neovascular macular degeneration.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Not Saturday

Patel,  Purnima Sharad -- "Gender in Ophthalmology" 
  • Summary: Discussion on where we are with gender in ophthalmology, the impact of unconscious bias, and how to create more equity through behavioral design. Review of literature on women in ophthalmology.
  • Educational objectives: Need to address the gender gap in our field.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

 Plager, David -- "Infant Aphakia Treatment Study - 20 years on"

  • Summary:  The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study was formulated in 1996 to evaluate the advisability of placing IOLs in infant eyes <7 mos of age. It is a multi centered (12) study that is still ongoing - the last of the 10 year old exams should be completed next year. Many lessons have been learned to date that has shaped how pediatric cataract surgeons approach surgical treatment of infants with congenital cataracts.
  • Educational objectives:  Best treatment options for babies with congenital cataracts.
  • Schedule restrictions: Not on Saturday 

Rachitskaya, Aleksandra  -- "Argus II, The Next Step"
  • Summary: There are more than 300 Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System implants performed world-wide. Cole Eye Institute is the leader in Argus II implantation in the United States. The current talk will cover novel imaging and visual rehabilitation approaches in Argus II recipients.
  • Educational objectives:  The current talk will describe novel imaging and visual rehabilitation approaches in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System recipients.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

ReiserBibiana Jin -- "The Ahmed-Baerveldt Comparison Study in the Surgical Management of Pediatric Glaucoma"
  • Summary: Aqueous drainage devices have proven efficacious in adult glaucoma management, but their efficacy and safety in pediatric glaucoma is unclear. In this study, post-operative outcomes from implantation of Ahmed FP7 valves (AGV) and Baerveldt 350 glaucoma implants (BGI) in a heterogeneous group of pediatric refractory glaucoma patients at a tertiary referral center were compared.
  • Educational objectives:  There is a question as to the "best" surgical option for the treatment of refractory pediatric glaucoma, this is a study that addresses this sparsely reported topic.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Rizzuto, Philip R.-- "Maximize Your Media Interview"
  • Summary: Journalists are constantly looking for interesting and engaging stories they can develop for their viewers and listeners. When we make ourselves available for commentary in the media, and maximize our delivery of the topic, our practices/business have the most powerful way to engage people, our patients and the community. 
  • Educational objectives:  This lecture will enhance members ability to maximize their messaging during a media interview.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Not Tues 7/31, Wed 8/1

Robbins, Shira L.-- "The Relationship Between Steroids and Pediatric IOP"
  • Summary: Steroid medications may cause elevation of intraocular pressure, sometimes with permanent damage to the optic nerve. These therapies, via various routes of administration, are commonly prescribed for children, but the potential sequelae of IOP elevation and glaucomatous optic nerve damage can be even more severe and devastating in this population than in adults. This review will discuss the pathophysiology, potential risk factors including the impact of intraocular pressure elevation via the different common routes of administration of steroids, clinical evaluation, and management of steroid response and steroid-induced glaucoma in children.
  • Educational objectives:  To review the potential sequelae of IOP elevation and glaucomatous optic nerve damage from the common use of pediatric ocular steroids.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Saini, Arvind-- "Update on OSSN case and new corneal dystrophy case"
  • Summary:  I will provide follow up images and pathology on a OSSN case I presented last year. I will also introduce a new case which is on a presumed form of Granular Corneal Dystrophy
  • Educational objectives: dealing with complex corneal diseases
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Schwartz, Stephen G. -- "OCT Angiography of Retinal Vascular Diseases
  • Summary: A quick survey of interesting retinal vascular disease cases imaged with OCT angiography
  • Educational objectives:  To provide an update on new technology (OCT angiography) to image retinal vascular disease
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

Tandon, Amit. -- "Academic Compensation Plans and Doppelgngers
  • Summary: A review of the evolution of a compensation plan in an academic institution. 
  • Educational objectives:  N/A
  • Schedule Restrictions: Anytime

West, Constance -- "America's Great Loop"
  • Summary: "Some day, I'd like to..." Almost all of of us have said that at one time or another, but what does it really take to make the adventure of a lifetime happen? "When life gives you lemons, make lemonade" was all it took to help me to put together a single-handed, 6000 mile voyage in a small boat along America's Great Lakes and rivers. You CAN do it, too!
  • Educational objectives:  Inspire learners to leverage time/practice management skills to achieve personal goals.
  • Schedule Restrictions: Not able to attend meeting... possible "remote" presentation

 Ying, Michelle -- Accelerated CXL versus Standard CX

  • Summary:  Compare the outcomes of accelerated corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) to the standard "Dresden protocol" CXL for progressive keratoconus and ectasia.
  • Educational objectives:  To learn if there are any differences between accelerated CXL and standard CXL
  • Schedule Restrictions:  Anytime


Last Updated on Monday, July 09, 2018 03:24 PM